Usually in Legal

Ad Litem. A Latin term that means for trial purposes. For example, an “ad litem” guardian is a person appointed by the court to protect the interests of a minor or a legally incapable person in a dispute. Exclusionary rule – The rule that prevents illegally obtained evidence, such as property found during an illegal search, from being used in legal proceedings. Place. Generally speaking, the geographical area in which a court has jurisdiction to hear a case because it has personal and material jurisdiction. The location is usually the same place where the incident that led to the trial occurred. A change of venue may occur when negative publicity or other factors would make it difficult to find impartial judges. Legal fiction. A presumption of a fact, which may or may not be true, made by a judge to decide a question of law.

Trust Deed or Declaration of Trust – The legal document that establishes a living trust. Testamentary trusts are set out in a will. Religious law is explicitly based on religious commandments. Examples include Jewish halacha and Islamic Sharia – both of which translate to “way forward” – while Christian canon law also survives in some religious congregations. Often the implication of religion for law is immutable, because the Word of God cannot be changed or laws made by judges or governments. [105] However, a complete and detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. For example, the Qur`an has a certain law, and it acts as a source for other laws by interpretation,[106] Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent. This is mainly contained in a set of laws and regulations known as Sharia or fiqh. Another example is the Torah or the Old Testament in the Pentateuch or the five books of Moses. It contains the basic code of Jewish law used by some Israeli communities. Halakha is a code of Jewish law that summarizes some of the interpretations of the Talmud. Nevertheless, Israeli law only allows litigants to enforce religious laws if they wish.

Canon law is used only by members of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. In the House of Commons, politicians are elected to represent small ridings. The “upper house” is usually elected to represent states in a federal system (as in Australia, Germany, or the United States) or another electoral configuration in a unified system (as in France). In the United Kingdom, the House of Lords is appointed the Chamber of Review by the government. One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses can simply mirror each other. The traditional justification for the bicameral system is that an upper house functions as an examination chamber. This can minimize arbitrariness and injustice in government action. [137] Challenge for cause – A challenge to the seat of a particular jury for a stated reason (usually bias or prejudice for or against one of the parties to the application). It is at the discretion of the judge to dismiss the challenge. Differs from the mandatory challenge that he can normally exercise under the law.

Contributory Negligence – A legal doctrine that prevents the plaintiff in a civil action from recovering a defendant for negligence if the plaintiff also acted negligently. New Mexico has abandoned the doctrine of contributory negligence in favor of comparative negligence. Will – A legal statement that disposes of a person`s property upon that person`s death. Error. In the legal sense, an erroneous interpretation of the facts or an application of the law that may give rise to an appeal. Ancient India and China represent different legal traditions and had historically independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c. 100-300 AD). A.D.) were basic treaties in India and include texts that are considered authoritative legal advice. [69] Manu`s central philosophy was tolerance and pluralism and was cited throughout Southeast Asia.

[70] During the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent, Sharia law was introduced by Muslim sultanates and empires, notably by Fatawa-e-Alamgiri of the Mughal Empire, compiled by Emperor Aurangzeb and various scholars of Islam. [71] [72] In India, the Hindu legal tradition and Islamic law were replaced by the common law when India became part of the British Empire. [73] Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong have also adopted the common law system. The East Asian legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences. [74] Japan was the first country to begin modernizing its Western-style legal system by importing parts of the French, but especially the German Civil Code. [75] This partly reflected Germany`s status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, in the last years of the Qing Dynasty, traditional Chinese law gave way to Westernization in the form of six private law codes based primarily on the Japanese model of German law. [76] Today, Taiwanese law has the greatest affinity with the codifications of this period, due to the split between Chiang Kai-shek`s nationalists, who took refuge there, and Mao Zedong`s communists, who took control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure of the People`s Republic of China has been heavily influenced by Soviet socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law to the detriment of private law rights.

[77] Due to rapid industrialization, China is now in a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social, and political rights. A new treaty law in 1999 marked a move away from administrative dominance. [78] Moreover, after fifteen years of negotiations, China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001. [79] Void contract – A contract that has no legal effect and cannot be enforced under any circumstances. For example, a contract to commit an illegal act is null and void. Shall is an imperative commandment that generally indicates that certain actions are mandatory and not permissive. This contrasts with the word “may,” which is generally used to indicate a permissive provision that usually involves some degree of discretion. After accreditation, a lawyer often works in a law firm, in a chamber as an individual practitioner, in a government position, or in a private company as an in-house lawyer. In addition, a lawyer can become a legal researcher who offers legal research on demand through a library, commercial service, or freelance work. Many people with legal training use their skills entirely outside the legal field. [160] Lawyer – A lawyer licensed or a lawyer authorized by the courts to prepare, administer and negotiate court cases, prepare legal documents or otherwise represent the interests of citizens. Dicta.

Plural of “obiter dictum”. A comment made by a judge in a legal opinion that is not relevant to the decision and does not set a precedent. Panel – (1) On appeal, a panel of judges (usually three) to decide the case; (2) In the jury selection process, the pool of potential jurors. Decree. Statement of the court on the legal consequences of the facts established. See also order, judgment. The etymology of bureaucracy is derived from the French word for office (office) and the ancient Greek word for word power (kratos). [147] Like the military and police, government officials and the organs of a legal system that make up its bureaucracy carry out decrees. One of the earliest references to the concept comes from Baron de Grimm, a German writer who lived in France. In 1765 he wrote: Primary Care Physician (PCP). A physician who is employed by a managed health care system, such as an HMO, or who contracts with a managed health care system that coordinates all of the member`s medical care. A PNP is usually a family doctor.

PCPs are also known as “gatekeepers” because they control a member`s access to medical care as part of a health care plan. Socialist law is the legal system of communist states such as the former Soviet Union and the People`s Republic of China. [95] Academic opinion is divided as to whether this is a separate system from civil law, given the significant divergences based on Marxist-Leninist ideology, such as the subordination of the judiciary to the ruling executive party. [95] [96] [97] The Catholic Church has the oldest permanently functioning legal system in the Western world,[109][110] which preceded the development of modern European civil law and common law.

 34 مجموع الزوار,  1 زوار اليوم

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